Acetylene is a combustible gas with a distinctive odor. It is used as a raw material for the production of several organic chemicals, as well as a fuel component in metal cutting, and oxy-acetylene welding. Today, acetylene is also used in the production of several plastics.
Introduction to Acetylene Generation Process Using Calcium Carbide
In various industrial environments, acetylene generation is initiated in acetylene generators. This equipment is sold in various capacities from 8 m3 to over 200 m3 per hour. Calcium carbide is introduced from the top of the generator shell into the water.
This reaction should only be conducted under controlled conditions. The process unit should be equipped with pressure and temperature sensors, as well as non-return valves for safety purposes.
Acetylene Generator and Acetylene Production Using Calcium Carbide
Parts of acetylene generation plant :
1. Generator: Here, calcium carbide is mixed with a large quantity of water to produce acetylene gas.
2. Condenser: It helps cool down the acetylene gas produced in the generator.
3. Ammonia Scrubber: This vessel removes ammonia from the acetylene stream before purification.
4. Medium Pressure Drier: As the name suggests, the medium pressure drier helps dry the acetylene gas. It is also used to control the moisture content of the acetylene stream into the purifier. Anhydrous calcium chloride is used for the purpose.
5. Purifier: It mainly comprises of a purifying material, which helps separate phosphine and hydrogen sulphide created during the acetylene generation.
6. Purifier Scrubber: This component keeps any purifying material from entering the compressor.
7. Compressor: Acetylene is a flammable gas. It uses a compressor that is surrounded by water, which cools the heat of compression after each stage.
Safety Guidelines for Handling Calcium Carbide during Acetylene Generation
The following are some guidelines that should be adopted while handling calcium carbide during acetylene generation.
1. The maximum permissible size and weight of the carbide for a single charge should be matched with the equipment manufacturer’s specification.
2. Calcium carbide should be kept in air and water tight metal packages, and labelled “Calcium Carbide – Dangerous If Not Dry”.
3. Calcium carbide in drums should not exceed 250 kg. It should be stored where water cannot enter. Containers should be regularly checked to see that water has not entered.
4. Calcium carbide drums shall only be opened at the time of filling carbide to hoppers.
5. Carbide with more than 15% dust concentration shouldn’t be charged in the generator.
6. The carbide-water residue should not be discharged into the environment directly.