Skip to content

Propane Safety Data Sheet

Product Name:Propane
Chemical Name:Propane
Chemical Family:Alkane (hydrocarbon)
Synonyms:Dimethylmethane, LP-Gas, Liquified petroleum gas (LPG)
NFPA Fire:4
NFPA Health:1
NFPA Reactivity:0
NFPA Special Hazard: 
HMIS Fire:4
HMIS Health:0
HMIS Reactivity:o
Sudden Release Pressure:Yes

Ingredients – Composition Information of propane gas 

CAS No.74-98-6
Percent (by weight)99.0% 100.0%
ACGIH – STELSimple Asphyxiant

Emergency Overview of propane gas 

Danger:Flammable liquid gas under pressure. Can form explosive mixtures with air. May cause frostbite.

Potential Health Effects Information of proane gas 

Inhalation:Simple asphyxiant. It should be noted that before suffocation could occur, the lower flammability limit of propane in air would be exceeded; possibly causing both an oxygen-deficient and explosive atmosphere. Exposure to concentrations (> 10%) may cause dizziness. Exposure to atmospheres containing 8-10% or less oxygen will bring about unconsciousness without warning, and so quickly that the individuals cannot help or protect themselves. Lack of sufficient oxygen may cause serious injury or death.
Eye:Contact with liquid or cold vapor can cause freezing of tissue.
Skin:Contact with liquid or cold vapor can cause frostbite.
Chronic Effects:None
Medical Conditions Aggravated By OverexposureNone.
Carcinogenicity:Not listed in NTP, OSHA or IARC

First Aid Measures

Inhalation:Persons suffering from lack of oxygen should be removed to fresh air. If victim is not breathing, administer artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, administer oxygen. Obtain prompt medical attention.
Eye:Contact with liquid or cold vapor can cause freezing of tissue. Gently flush eyes with lukewarm water. Obtain medical attention immediately.
Skin:Contact with liquid or cold vapor can cause frostbite. Immediately warm affected area with lukewarm water not to exceed 105°F (40°C).
Notes To Physician:None.

Fire Fighting Measures

Flash Point:-156F (-104C)
Auto ignition:842F (432C)
Flammable Limits – Lower:2.2%
Flammable Limits – Upper:9.5%
Extinguishing Media:CO2, dry chemical, water spray or fog for surrounding area. Do not extinguish until propane source is shut off.
Fire Fighting Instructions:Evacuate all personnel from danger area. Immediately cool container with water spray from maximum distance, taking care not to extinguish flames. If flames are accidentally extinguished, explosive re-ignition may occur. Stop flow of gas if without risk while continuing cooling water spray.
Fire And Explosion HazardsPropane is easily ignited. It is heavier than air, therefore, it may collect in low areas or travel along the ground where an ignition source may be present. Pressure in a container can build up due to heat, and it may rupture if pressure relief devices should fail to function.
Hazardous Combustion Products:None
Sensitivity To Static Discharge: Possible, container should be grounded.
Sensitivity To Mechanical Impact:None

Accidental Release Measures

Evacuate:Evacuate the immediate area. Eliminate any possible sources of ignition, and provide maximum explosion-proof ventilation. Shut off source of propane, if possible. If leaking from cylinder, or valve, contact your supplier. Never enter a confined space or other area where the concentration is greater than 10% of the lower flammable limit which is 0.22%.

Handling and Storage of propane gas 

Storage:Specific requirements are listed in NFPA 58. Cylinder storage locations should be well-protected, well-ventilated, dry, and separated from combustible materials. Cylinders should never knowingly be allowed to reach a temperature exceeding 125°F (52°C). Cylinders of propane should be separated from oxygen cylinders or other oxidizers by a minimum distance of 20 ft., or by a barrier of non-combustible material at least 5 ft. high having a fire resistance rating of at least ½ hour. Full and empty cylinders should be segregated. Use a first-in, first-out inventory system to prevent full containers from being stored for long periods of time.
Handling:Propane is heavier than air and may collect in low areas that are without proper
ventilation. Leak check system with leak detection solution, never with flame. If user experiences difficulty operating cylinder valve, discontinue use and contact supplier. Never insert an object (e.g., wrench, screwdriver, pry bar, etc.) into valve cap openings. Doing so may damage valve, causing a leak to occur. Use an adjustable strap wrench to remove over-tight or rusted caps. Non-sparking tools should be used. Never strike an arc on a compressed gas cylinder or make a cylinder a part of an electrical circuit. Electrically bond and ground cylinder when transferring liquid product. For additional precautions in using propane

Exposure Control – Personal Protection

Engineering Controls:

Ventilation:Natural or mechanical to prevent accumulation in worker’s breathing zone above exposure limits

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE):

Skin Protection:

Clothing:Cotton clothing is recommended for use to prevent static buildup.
Glasses:Safety glasses are recommended when handling cylinders.
Shoes:Safety shoes are recommended when handling cylinders.
Gloves:Work gloves are recommended when handling cylinders.

Physical and Chemical Properties of propane gas 

Physical State:Gas
Color:Colorless gas.
Odor:Non Odorized propane has a slightly sweet odor. If an odorant has been added it will have a strong unpleasant odor.
Molecular Weight:44.097
Boiling Point:-43.67°F ( -42.04°C) @ 1 atm
Specific Gravity:1.5223 At 70°F (21.1°C) @ 1 atm, Air = 1
Freezing/Melting Point:-305.84F (-187.69C) at 1 atm
Vapor Pressure:109.73 psig, (756.56 kPa) at 70°F (21.2°)
Vapor Density:0.110 lb./cu ft (1.1.77kg/CuM), At 70°F (21.1°C) @ 1 atm
Water Solubility:.065 Vol./Vol. At 100° F (37.8°C)
Expansion Ratio:1 to 290 at 70°F (21.1°C)
pH:Not Applicable – Gas
Odor Threshold:1800 mg/CuM
Evaporation Rate:Not Applicable – Gas
Coefficient Of Water/Oil Distribution:Information not available

Stability and Reactivity

Chemical Stability:Stable
Conditions To Avoid:None
Hazardous Decomposition Products:None
Hazardous Polymerization:Will not occur

Ecological Information

Ecotoxicity:No adverse ecological effects are expected. Acetylene does not contain any Class I or Class II Ozone depleting chemicals (40 CFR Part 82). Acetylene is not listed as a marine pollutant by DOT (49 CFR Part 171).

Disposal Considerations

Waste Disposal Method:Do not attempt to dispose of residual or unused quantities. Return cylinder to supplier. Residual product within process system may be burned at a controlled rate, if a suitable burning unit (flare stack) is available on site. This shall be done in accordance with federal, state, and local regulations.

Transport Information of propane gas 

DOT/IMO Shipping Name:Propane
Hazard Class:2.1 (Flammable gas.)
Identification Number:UN 1978
Product RQ:None.
Shipping Label:Flammable Gas.
Special Shipping Information:Cylinders should be transported in a secure position, in a well ventilated vehicle. The transportation of compressed gas cylinders in automobiles or in closed-body vehicles can present serious hazards and should be discouraged.
Placard (When Required):Flammable gas.